Tell, Say, Speak, Talk: как разобраться?

Tell, Say, Speak, Talk – это не английские слова, которые вечно путают студенты. В целом на русский язык всех их можно перевести как “говорить” или “сказать”. Но каждое их этих слов имеет свой особый смысловой оттенок.

IНе будем тянуть, давайте же скорее разбираться, в чем разница между Tell, Say, Speak, Talk!

Когда использовать Tell

Обычно в английском мы используем tell, когда даем какие-либо указания или инструкции. Важно! Сразу же после слова ‘tell’ должен стоять объект (например, you/her/us) .

Примеры:

She told her mother to buy her an extra pair of shoes.

The professor told his students to focus their attention on the class.

I forgot to tell them I will be absent today.

Грамматически ‘say’ и ‘tell’ могут быть взаимозаменяемыми, когда речь идет о способе передачи информации от одного лица другому. Конструкции все же немного разные: ‘tell’ + объект или ‘say’ + ‘to’ + объект.

Примеры:

Mary told me she would not join the trip.

Mary said to me she would not join the trip.

Когда использовать Say

Когда мы используем ‘say’, то ставить объект (e.g. me/them/you) сразу после глагола НЕ НУЖНО. Слово ‘say’ используется, когда мы цитируем людей или же даем инструкции. 

Например:

Paul said he is arriving in 10 minutes.

The news said it would rain today.

He never said thank you after receiving the gift. Such an ungrateful woman.

Say can also express an opinion or thought, as in: ‘I say we should go to the beach and seize the day.

Когда употреблять Speak

Мы используем ‘speak’ (вместо ‘talk’), когда находимся в более формальной ситуации и хотим подчеркнуть важность чего-либо. Более того, ‘speak’ в качестве существительного звучит гораздо официальнее ‘talk’ – сравните: ‘Give a speech’ и ‘give a talk’.

Например:

You need to speak about your failure in the recent project! (строже, чем ‘talk about’)

Angelina Jolie will be speaking at the UN conference next month. (более официально и престижно, чем ‘give a talk on…’)

И, конечно, глагол speak используется, когда мы говорим об уровне владения каким-либо языком.

Например:

‘She speaks three languages fluently–Chinese, Japanese, and English.’

В этих предложениях ‘speak’ означает, что она свободно знает эти языки, а не просто может говорить.

Когда использовать Talk

В английском ‘talk’ обычно более формально, чем ‘chat’. Мы можем использовать ‘talk’ в неформальном разговоре, например, с друзьями или членами семьи.

Например:

Can I talk to you about the next week’s event?

We were talking to each other over the phone last night when the power suddenly went off.

‘I love chatting with my friends over a bucket of cold beer!’ (very informal)

В некоторых ситуация ‘speak’ и ‘talk’ взаимозаменяемы. Здорово и то, что нет грамматической разницы в конструкциях.

Например:

‘I will speak/talk with you about our project tomorrow.’

‘We can speak/talk about the agenda later this afternoon.’

Популярные выражения с Tell, Say, Speak, Talk

Выражения с SAY

Say something (= Скажи что-нибудь кому-нибудь)

Например:

John has been always absent since last month? Should I talk to him and say something about his poor attendance record?
I need to say something to you about your behavior last night.

About to say (= Я только хотел сказать (когда вы были готовы произнести что-то, но собеседник вас опередил)

Например:

She was about to say good night before you interrupted her and asked her to eat ice cream with you.
I was about to say I love you to him when he suddenly kissed me.

Nothing to say (= мне нечего сказать)

Например:

You already said everything. I have nothing left to say anymore.
After we ended our relationship, I have nothing to say to him about his future events.

Need to say (= мне нужно сказать)

Например:

I can’t hold it anymore but I think I need to say I’m in love with him.

Hate to say (= употребляется, когда человек не хочет о говорить что-либо, но вынужден это делать)

Например:

I hate to say it, but she is not the best fit for this job. Should we let her pass the training?
She hates to say this, but her relationship with John is over.

Fair to say (= справедливо сказать, отметить)

Например:

It’s fair to say that Mary deserves to win the contest.
It’s fair to say that I’m very impressed with your work performance this week.

Say no more (= используется, когда больше нечего сказать. Своеобразная точка в вашем монологе)

Например:

I am so pissed off about the poor presentation you had during the meeting. Please improve your work and make it better, and I’ll say no more about it.

Say a few words (= скажу пару слов)

Например:

Before we end the program, I’d like to say a few words for our hospitable hosts tonight.
Before we sit down to enjoy the meal, I would like to say a few words about the bride and groom.

How can you say? (= Как ты можешь такое говорить?)

Например:

How can you say such terrible things about your very own mother?

People say (= Люди говорят / Говорят / Как говорится)

Например:

People say they associate black cats with bad luck.
What do people say about the Halloween folk legends in your town?

Выражения с TELL

Tell about (= рассказать о)

Например:

Can you tell me about your vacation in Japan last week?
I need to tell you about what happened at the party last night.

Tell a story (= рассказать историю о)

Например:

Let me tell you a story about Romeo and Juliet.
My teacher told a story about his near-death experience last month during his vacation.

Tell a lie (= говорить неправду)

Например:

I love the way you tell a lie.
She told a lie when she said she’s done with her project. The truth is, she has not started it yet.

Tell the truth (= говорить правду)

Например:

The police asked the criminal to tell the truth during the investigation.
Tell me the truth! Who stole my purse?

Tell the time (= сказать, который сейчас час)

Например:

Could you tell me the time, please?

Tell a secret (= Рассказать секрет)

Например:

I’m going to tell you a secret but promise me you keep it to yourself.
Please don’t tell the secret to anyone. It’s confidential.

Tell a joke (= рассказать шутку)

Например:

She’s very good at telling a joke.
She can tell a joke that would make you laugh out loud.

Tell the difference (= объяснить разницу)

Например:

Can you tell the difference between orange and tangerine?
I can’t tell the difference between they’re and their in spoken English.

Tell tales (= сказки рассказывать (в переносном значении))

Например:

Stop telling tales on Lily! I know it wasn’t her who stole the necklace.

Выражения со SPEAK

Speak up (= говорить громче)

Например :

Can you please speak up? I can hardly hear you.
When speaking publicly, it’s very important to speak up or use a microphone so that our listeners can hear us.

Speak on (= говорить о (более формально))

Например:

I spoke on the topic about the importance of English in class yesterday.
Let’s speak on the success of Philippine tourism for tomorrow’s lesson.

Speak about (= говорить о (менее формально, чем ‘speak on’))

Например:

Shall we speak about the improvements of the project we’re launching next month?
Today, I’d like to speak out about the benefits of learning IELTS in the Philippines.

Speak to (= говорить с (формальное))

Например:

She spoke to me about the project proposal I made yesterday.
May I speak to you about your plans of resigning from the company next week?

Speak for (= говорить за, от имени кого-либо)

Например :

I speak for the company to congratulate you on a job well done!
He spoke for his wife during the ceremony, provided that his wife had a fever yesterday.

Speak with (= обсудить с)

Например:

I need to speak with you about what happened this morning.
We need to speak with the manager first before we can start planning for the event.

So to speak (= так сказать)

Например:

She will tell you what is going on, but only because you are already family, so to speak.
My sister and I are not allowed to go out with our friends. Our parents always sit on our heads, so to speak.

Speak ill of (= плохо говорить о)

Например:

I can’t stop but speak ill of her. I just hate her so much.
Why do you always speak ill of your sister? Do you really dislike each other?

Speak up for (= говорить за кого-то )

Например:

As humans, we need to know our rights and speak up for those who are discriminated against and abused.
Mary is such a helpful woman; she always speaks up for her friends, who always get bullied.

Speak highly of someone/something (= говорить приятные слова о ком-то/чем-то)

Например:

My boss always speaks highly of me in the office and I couldn’t be any prouder.
Her teacher speaks highly of her performance in the class.

Выражения с TALK

Talk up (= хвалить кого-либо/что-либо)

Например:

The students can’t talk up about their new class adviser. Her teaching strategy is so remarkable.

Talk down (= говорить свысока, показывая свое превосходство)

Например:

You can’t talk down your efforts for this project. It will not be successful in your participation.

Talk out of (= переубедить. Используется, когда другой человек хочет совершить какую-то глупость)

Например:

He talked her out of quitting school.

Talk back (= дерзить)

Например:

It’s vulgar to talk back to people older than you.

Talk over (= перебивать)

Например:

I hate it when someone talks over me while I’m speaking. I think he/she should wait for her turn to speak.

Talk about (= говорить о)

Например:

We can talk about this project in our next session.
Can we talk about this topic next time?

Talk down to (= разговаривать снисходительно)

Например:

Sometimes, rich people talk down to poor people because they think they are superior to others.
He talks down to me maybe because is the manager and I’m just a normal staff.

Talk to (= разговаривать с)

Например:

I am going to talk to my boss after the meeting about this problem.

Talk on (= говорить о)

Например:

After their talk about learning English in the Philippines, my team will also talk on getting visas, accommodation, etc.

Talk with (= говорить с кем-либо о …)

Например:

Lisa needs to talk with Sheila to complete their plans for the party.

Talk around (= косвенно обсуждать тему, не называя вещи своими именами)

Например:

They’ve been talking around the real issue rather than addressing it directly.

Ну что, уловили разницу между Tell, Say, Speak, Talk?
Просмотрите еще раз все эти выражения, они вам точно пригодятся в повседневной речи!

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